Infections are most commonly acquired in the urban environment. Dengue fever, which was once confined to Southeast Asia, has now spread to Southern China, countries in the Pacific Ocean and America,  and might pose a threat to Europe. Of the 2. Like most arboviruses, dengue virus is maintained in nature in cycles that involve preferred blood-sucking vectors and vertebrate hosts.
In rural settings the virus is transmitted to humans by A. In , transmission by the Aedes mosquitos was confirmed, and in dengue was the second disease after yellow fever that was shown to be caused by a virus. The marked spread of dengue during and after the Second World War has been attributed to ecologic disruption. The same trends also led to the spread of different serotypes of the disease to new areas, and to the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
This severe form of the disease was first reported in the Philippines in ; by the s, it had become a major cause of child mortality and had emerged in the Pacific and the Americas. The origins of the Spanish word dengue are not certain, but it is possibly derived from dinga in the Swahili phrase Ka-dinga pepo , which describes the disease as being caused by an evil spirit. The term "break-bone fever" was applied by physician and United States Founding Father Benjamin Rush , in a report of the epidemic in Philadelphia.
In the report title he uses the more formal term "bilious remitting fever". Outbreaks of dengue fever increases the need for blood products while decreasing the number of potential blood donors due to potential infection with the virus. A National Dengue Day is held in India on May 16 in an effort to raise awareness in affected countries. Research efforts to prevent and treat dengue include various means of vector control,  vaccine development, and antiviral drugs. With regards to vector control, a number of novel methods have been used to reduce mosquito numbers with some success including the placement of the guppy Poecilia reticulata or copepods in standing water to eat the mosquito larvae.
Attempts are ongoing to infect the mosquito population with bacteria of the genus Wolbachia , which makes the mosquitos partially resistant to dengue virus. Apart from attempts to control the spread of the Aedes mosquito there are ongoing efforts to develop antiviral drugs that would be used to treat attacks of dengue fever and prevent severe complications. The first approach is inhibition of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase coded by NS5 , which copies the viral genetic material, with nucleoside analogs.
Secondly, it may be possible to develop specific inhibitors of the viral protease coded by NS3 , which splices viral proteins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Dengue fever disambiguation. Play media. Clinical course of dengue fever . The rash of dengue fever in the acute stage of the infection blanches when pressed. The rash that commonly forms during the recovery from dengue fever with its classic islands of white in a sea of red. Main article: Dengue virus.
Warning signs  . See also: Dengue fever outbreaks. May Archived from the original on 2 September Retrieved 3 February Elsevier Health Sciences.
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Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 10 April William; Ray, Sarah E. Nature Microbiology. However, it should be emphasized from the very start that metal artifacts represent one of the. One reason is that ore-preparation sites and metal workshops, generally located outside the settlements, are usually discovered only by chance. Metal objects were precious and were usually handled with more care than, for instance, ceramic vessels that were more easily replaced; not nearly as fragile, their average lifespan was longer, and they remained in use over a longer period of time, often salvaged or recycled.
For these reasons, what the archaeologist uncovers in settlements generally represents only a small fraction of the metal tools that would have been in use there.