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Journal News. Web Mail. Search in website. Search the articles Search the site. Advanced Search. Receive site information. Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information. Hard Copy Online This report considered the ethical questions surrounding the decision to put individuals at risk of harm; methods to protect soldiers while meeting military objectives; policies for recording, maintaining, and using individual dose information; and programs to identify potential adverse health effects appearing long after exposure.
After the Persian Gulf War, a number of returning veterans began reporting health problems that they believed to be associated with their service. Under a congressional mandate, the IOM initiated a report series reviewing a wide array of biological, chemical, and physical agents present in the theater of operations to evaluate whether exposure might be responsible for particular health outcomes.
DU, a weakly radioactive and toxic heavy metal, has been used in both munitions and protective armor for tanks since the s because its high density has desirable offensive and defensive armor-penetration characteristics.
“Nuclear and Radiation Safety” Periodical
As a result, military personnel have inhaled or swallowed DU particulates and suffered injuries from DU shrapnel and fragments during combat. Health effects possibly associated with exposure to DU have been considered in multiple volumes in the IOM report series. In a report, Gulf War and Health, Volume 1: Depleted Uranium, Sarin, Pyridostigmine Bromide, and Vaccines , a committee concluded that there was not enough evidence to draw conclusions as to whether long-term health problems were associated with DU exposure IOM, The IOM updated its review in , focusing on literature published since the first effort.
That report, Gulf War and Health: Updated Literature Review of Depleted Uranium, determined that there continued to be inadequate or insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between in-theater exposure and the cancer and noncancer health outcomes examined. Two additional reports released in also addressed DU. The first, Epidemiologic Studies of Veterans Exposed to Depleted Uranium: Feasibility and Design Issues, examined several options for conducting such research and concluded that the lack of accurate and complete individual-level exposure information on military personnel would make it difficult to design a retrospective study of DU-related health outcomes but that a prospective study might yield useful information should future military operations entail exposure to the substance IOM, b.
The report Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration examined factors influencing the exposure of astronauts to ionizing radiation and offered a strategic plan for developing appropriate mitigation capabilities. The study concluded that the lack of knowledge about biological effects of radiation encountered in space is the single most important factor limiting the prediction of risk associated with human space exploration and recommended that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA invest in research on that topic NRC, b.
Of Science, Fear, and Nuclear Radiation
Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation NRC, d considers the components, input data for the radiation types, estimated doses, and epidemiology , and associated uncertainties in a model developed to assess health risks for current and potential future missions. It concludes that, although many aspects of the space radiation environments are now relatively well characterized, important uncertainties still exist regarding biological effects and thus regarding the level and types of risks faced by astronauts.
Department of Homeland Security that assessed medical. In , the U. Nuclear Regulatory Commission U.
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NRC—licensed nuclear facilities that use or process uranium for the production of electricity. Analysis of Cancer Risks in Populations Near Nuclear Facilities: Phase 1 focuses on issues related to conducting a scientifically valid epidemiological study. Prominent among these were the challenge of assessing risks at low doses, weak exposure characterization for the populations of interest, and the uncertainties surrounding low-dose health effects NRC, a.
Phase 2 of the study, which is planning a pilot study of cancer risks, was in progress at the time that this report was completed in late It concluded that there are shortages of both clinical and research personnel in all nuclear medicine disciplines chemists, radiopharmacists, physicists, engineers, clinician-scientists, and technologists and that training of the next generation of professionals has not kept up with current demands p.
The authoring committee had been charged with examining the demand for nuclear chemistry expertise and the supply of incoming skilled experts.
The committee noted that although the demand for nuclear chemistry expertise was unlikely to decrease, the current labor force is approaching retirement age, with fewer incoming students in the field. To avoid a gap between supply and demand, the committee recommended ways to increase student interest through such steps as on-the-job training opportunities NRC, b.
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Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of the Matter NRC, reported that labor-supply problems have been building for several decades, and they affect all areas of applied nuclear science. The committee responsible for the report Assuring the U. The report presents five principal recommendations for attracting, retaining, and managing highly qualified STEM talent within the department, on the basis of an examination of the current DoD labor force and the defense industrial base.
The recommendations include a call for DoD to upgrade education and training for its civilian STEM workforce and to focus investments to ensure that STEM competencies in all potentially critical emerging topical areas are maintained at least at a basic level within the department and its industrial and university bases NRC, c. The remainder of this report is divided into five chapters plus three supporting appendixes. Chapter 2 sets the stage for the remaining chapters by providing background on the current directions in radiobiology research.
It describes the cancer and noncancer health effects associated with exposure to low doses of radiation and the tools available to researchers to study them.
Nuclear Radiation Physics. | The Journal of Physical Chemistry
The chapter also outlines the different methods used to analyze biological markers of dose or effect and the factors that influence the risks associated with exposure. Chapter 3 examines the state of the radiobiology research workforce by first defining the field of study and then summarizing the literature on the supply of and demand for professionals in the discipline. A listing of academic programs in the United States that focus on radiobiology is also presented.
It gives the history of the Institute and describes its infrastructure, staff, budget, and capabilities. It puts forward a series of proposals for how AFRRI might build on its strengths and advance its mission while. Agendas of the public meetings held by the committee are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B comprises a brief summary of research programs concerning low-dose ionizing radiation health effects under way in the United States.
Biographical information on the committee members and staff responsible for this study are contained in Appendix C. Bethesda, MD, July 12, Bethesda, MD, October 31, Bethesda, MD, January 10, Blake, P. Radiation exposure of U. Health Physics 2 Brenner, D. Boice, W. Morgan, J. Cleaver, T. Hei, H. Hricak, S. Adelstein, and J. Letter to John P. New York. Cary, A. TriCity Herald , February 22, Dauer, L. Zanzonico, R. Tuttle, D. Quinn, and H.
The Japanese tsunami and resulting nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi power facility: Technical, radiologic, and response perspectives. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 52 9 DOE U. Department of Energy. Hanford overview and history.